Basil Essential Oil

Sweet Basil (Ocimum basilicum)

Basil Essential Oil is extracted from the leaves of several species of Basil (Ocimum spp). Basil is widely used for culinary purposes and many strains of this plant are cultivated around the world. Basil Essential Oil is also a popular component of many Naturopathic skin care treatments. Basil Essential Oil is occasionally included in topical Naturopathic acne treatments.

Thai Basil Leaves
Thai Basil Leaves

Basil has been cultivated for thousands of years and plays an important role in the traditional cuisine of many cultures. Basil Essential Oil has been shown to have a wide range of antimicrobial properties. Laboratory testing indicates that Basil Essential Oil is moderately toxic to many gram-positive bacteria, a group which includes the acne-causing P. acnes bacterium. Basil Essential Oil and other basil extracts are used in some Ayurvedic treatments for skin diseases, including acne.

Composition of Basil Essential Oil Extracted by 3 Different Methods (Charles)
Composition of Basil Essential Oil Extracted by 3 Different Methods (Charles)

When used for the treatment of acne, Basil Essential Oil is often blended into topical formulations that contain other essential oils and active ingredients. Basil Essential Oil has been purported to have anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antiviral and diuretic properties. Although there are few clinical research studies about the efficacy of Basil Essential Oil for the treatment of acne, the observed antibacterial properties of this essential oil warrant further investigation. Basil Essential Oil contains significant concentrations of several biologically-active molecules, such as Linalool and Methyl Chavicol.

Basil Essential Oil Images

References

Basil @ Wikipedia
Comparison of extraction methods for the rapid determination of essential oil content and composition of basil. Charles, et al. 1990.
Chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of basil (Ocimum basilicum) essential oils depends on seasonal variations. Hussain, et al. 2008.
Inhibitory effect of thyme and basil essential oils, carvacrol, thymol, estragol, linalool and p-cymene towards Shigella sonnei and S. flexneri. Bagamboula, et al. 2004.
Analysis of the essential oils of two cultivated basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) from Iran. Sajjadi, et al. 2006.
Composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oils from aromatic plants used in Brazil. Sartoratto, et al. 2004.
Evaluation of in vitro antimicrobial activity of Thai basil oils and their micro‐emulsion formulas against Propionibacterium acnes. Viyoch, et al. 2006.
In vitro bioactivities of essential oils used for acne control. Lertsatitthanakorn, et al. 2006.
Antibacterial and antifungal properties of essential oils. Kalemba, et al. 2003.
Antimicrobial activity of essential oils against five strains of Propionibacterium acnes. Luangnarumitchai, et al. 2007.

Vetiver Essential Oil

Vetiver Grass (Chrysopogon zizanioides)

Vetiver Essential Oil is extracted from the roots of Vetiver or Khus Bunchgrass (Chrysopogon zizanioides). Vetiver grass is a fragrant grass that is widely used for culinary and Naturopathic purposes. Vetiver Essential Oil is not as well-known or widely-used as many other essential oils, but it has some unique properties that make it a useful addition to Naturopathic treatments for certain skin conditions, such as acne. Although Vetiver Essential Oil is not currently a common ingredient in Naturopathic acne treatments, it does appear to be gaining popularity for this application.

Vetiver Grass (Chrysopogon zizanioides) 2
Vetiver Grass (Chrysopogon zizanioides)

Vetiver is a perennial bunchgrass that is native to the Indian subcontinent. It is a fragrant grass that is similar in appearance to Lemongrass and Citronella. Like these other fragrant grasses, the essential oil of Vetiver appears to have strong antibacterial properties. Laboratory testing indicates that Vetiver Essential Oil is highly toxic to the acne-causing P. acnes bacterium, as well as other gram-positive bacteria.

Chemical Composition of Vetiver Essential Oil (Adams)
Chemical Composition of Vetiver Essential Oil (Adams)

Vetiver Essential Oil is used in a range of aromatherapy, ayurvedic, cosmedic and naturopathic skin care products.  Vetiver Essential Oil has been claimed to have anti-inflammatory, antiseptic and sedative properties. Although there has been very little clinical research to verify these claims, the antibacterial activity of Vetiver Essential Oil suggests that this essential oil deserves to be further investigated as a topical treatment for acne. Vetiver Essential Oil contains many biologically active molecules, including significant concentrations of a unique molecule called Khusimol, which may be responsible for some of the reported effects of this essential oil.

Vetiver Essential Oil Images

References

Vetiver @ Wikipedia
Computer-aided identification of individual components of essential oils using carbon-13 NMR spectroscopy. Tomi, et al. 1995.
Extraction of vetiver essential oil by ethanol-modified supercritical carbon dioxide. Danh, et al. 2010.
Preliminary comparison of vetiver root essential oils from cleansed (bacteria- and fungus-free) versus non-cleansed (normal) vetiver plants. Adams, et al. 2004.
A Study on the Composition of Commercial Vetiveria zizanioides Oils from Different Geographical Origins. Champagnat, et al. 2006.
Qualitative and quantitative analysis of vetiver essential oils by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Filippi, et al. 2013.
The in vitro Antimicrobial Activity and Chemometric Modelling of 59 Commercial Essential Oils against Pathogens of Dermatological Relevance. Orchard, et al. 2017.
Antibacterial and antifungal activities of essential oils. Hammer, et al. 2011.

Cedarwood Essential Oil

Blue Atlas Cedar (Cedrus atlantica) Needles

Cedarwood Essential Oil is extracted from the needles and wood of several species of Juniper (Juniperus spp), Cypress (Cupressus spp) and Cedar (Cedrus spp). Because Cedarwood Essential Oil is produced from many different sources, the composition and properties of this essential oil are quite variable. Cedarwood Essential Oil is widely used in Aromotherapy and Naturopathic medicine. It is infrequently used in Naturopathic treatments for acne.

Blue Atlas Cedar Tree (Cedrus atlantica)
Blue Atlas Cedar Tree (Cedrus atlantica)

When used for the treatment of acne, Cedarwood Essential Oil is often blended into topical Naturopathic formulations that contain additional essential oils and other active ingredients. Cedarwood Essential Oil is purported to help improve skin tone. It has been claimed that Cedarwood Essential Oil has antibacterial, anti-fungal, astringent, insect repellent and sedative properties. Cedarwood Essential Oil has also been claimed to improve metabolic and digestive function. However, very few of these claims have been scientifically investigated, so it is difficult to know whether they are true or not. Cedar wood itself is well known to be resistant to microbes and insects, and cedar is widely used to create storage chests for clothing, and other items.

Chemical Composition of Cedarwood Essential Oil (Tomi)
Chemical Composition of Cedarwood Essential Oil (Tomi)

Cedarwood Essential Oil is most commonly produced from about 4 species of conifer: Blue Atlas Cedar (Cedrus atlantica), Himalayan Cedar (Cedrus deodora), Mexican Juniper (Juniperus mexicana) and Red Cedar (Juniperus virginiana). The chemical composition of Cedarwood Essential Oil depends on the source material. Major components of Cedarwood Essential Oil include alpha-Cedrene and Cedrol. Laboratory testing indicates that Cedarwood Essential Oil tends to be weakly toxic to gram positive bacteria, a group which includes the acne-causing P. acnes bacterium.

 

Cedarwood Essential Oil Images

References

Cedarwood Essential Oil @ Wikipedia
Computer-aided identification of individual components of essential oils using carbon-13 NMR spectroscopy. Tomi, et al. 1995.
Antimicrobial activity of essential oils and other plant extracts. Hammer, et al. 1999.
Cedar wood oil — Analyses and properties. Adams, et al. 1991.
In vitro antibacterial activity of some plant essential oils. Prabuseenivasan, et al. 2006.
Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of cedarwood oil: a study of extraction parameters and oil characteristics. Eller, et al. 2007.
The Encyclopedia of essential oils: the complete guide to the use of aromatic oils in aromatherapy, herbalism, health, and well being. Lawless. 2013.

Patchouli Essential Oil

Patchouli (Pogostemon cablin) Leaves

Patchouli Essential Oil is extracted from the leaves of several species of plants in the genus Pogostemon. Patchouli Essential Oil is widely used in Aromatherapy and perfumes. It is occasionally used in Naturopathic treatments for skin diseases, such as acne. When used in Naturopathic acne treatments, Patchouli Oil is often blended with other essential oils and active ingredients, and then applied topically.

Patchouli Leaves (Pogosteomon)
Patchouli Leaves (Pogosteomon)

Patchouli Essential Oil is purported to have antibacterial, anti-fungal and anti-inflammatory properties that can be helpful for individuals with skin infections, such as acne. It is also been claimed that Patchouli Essential Oil can improve skin tone and is a useful treatment for fine lines and uneven skin tone. However, few of these claims have been investigated in scientific studies. Patchouli Essential Oil is also used as a natural insect repellent.

Laboratory testing indicates that Patchouli Essential Oil has moderate antibacterial activity towards gram-positive bacteria, a group which includes the acne-causing P. acnes bacterium. However, many other essential oils have been shown to have stronger antibacterial properties than Patchouli Essential Oil.

Composition of Patchouli Essential Oil (Sundaresan)
Composition of Patchouli Essential Oil (Sundaresan)

The composition of Patchouli Essential Oil is variable and depends on the specific source material and how it was processed. Several species of Pogostemon are used to produce Patchouli Essential Oil, including Pogostemon cablin, P. commosum, P. heyneasus, P. hortensis,  and P. plectranthoides. Patchouli Essential Oil contains many biologically-active molecules, including abundant concentrations of alpha-Guaiene, delta-Guaiene, beta-Caryophyllene and alpha-Patchoulene.

 

Essential Oil Images

References

Patchouli Essential Oil @ Wikipedia
Comparison of extraction of patchouli (Pogostemon cablin) essential oil with supercritical CO 2 and by steam distillation. Donelian, et al. 1999.
Antimicrobial activity of essential oils and other plant extracts. Hammer, et al. 1999.
Antibacterial and antifungal activity of ten essential oils in vitro. Pattnaik, et al. 1995.
The effect of essential oils on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus using a dressing model. Edwards-Jones, et al. 2004.
Patchouli alcohol, an essential oil of Pogostemon cablin, exhibits anti-tumorigenic activity in human colorectal cancer cells. Jeong, et al. 2013.
Composition and comparison of essential oils of Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth.(Patchouli) and Pogostemon travancoricus Bedd. var. travancoricus. Sundaresan, et al. 2009.
The Encyclopedia of essential oils: the complete guide to the use of aromatic oils in aromatherapy, herbalism, health, and well being. Lawless. 2013.
The in vitro antimicrobial activity and chemometric modelling of 59 commercial essential oils against pathogens of dermatological relevance. Orchard, et al. 2017.
Efficiency of Vanilla, Patchouli and Ylang Ylang Essential Oils Stabilized by Iron Oxide C14 Nanostructures against Bacterial Adherence and Biofilms Formed by Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae Clinical Strains. Bilcu, et al. 2014.

Neroli Essential Oil

Bitter Orange (Citrus aurantium) Flower

Neroli Essential Oil is extracted from the flowers of the Bitter Orange tree (Citrus aurantium). Neroli Essential Oil is coveted for its alluring fragrance, and is widely used in Perfumery, Aromatherapy and as a flavoring additive. Bitter Orange Trees are native to Africa and Asia, but are now cultivated in many regions around the world.

Bitter Orange (Citrus aurantium) Fruit
Bitter Orange (Citrus aurantium) Fruit

Neroli Essential Oil is occasionally for the Naturopathic treatment of acne. As an acne treatment, Neroli Essential Oil is typically added to face wash blends and clarifying masks. Neroli Essential Oil has been reported to have antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties. It is also believed to have a lower risk of causing skin irritation than many other essential oils. Many Naturopaths and their patients have reported that topical preparations containing Neroli Essential Oil helped to improve their acne symptoms. However, there does not appear to be any publicly-available clinical research studies that support these claims.

Chemical Composition of Neroli Essential Oil (Boussaada)
Chemical Composition of Neroli Essential Oil (Boussaada)

Neroli Essential Oil contains a range of chemical compounds, many of which are known to have biological activity. Neroli Essential Oil contains significant concentrations of Linalool, Linalyl Acetate, Limonene, Farnesol, alpha-Terpineol and Nerolidol. Laboratory testing indicates that Neroli Essential Oil is only mildly toxic to gram-positive bacteria, a group which includes the acne-causing P. acnes bacterium. Many other essential oils are known to have significantly stronger antibacterial properties.

 

 

 

Neroli Essential Oil Images

References

Neroli Essential Oil @ Wikipedia
Bioactivity of selected plant essential oils against Listeria monocytogenes. Lis‐Balchin, et al. 1997.
Chemical composition and in vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Citrus aurantium l. flowers essential oil (Neroli oil). Ammar, et al. 2012.
Quantification and determination of chemical composition of the essential oil extracted from natural orange blossom water (Citrus aurantium L. ssp. aurantium). Jeannot, et al. 2005.
Chemical composition of essential oils from flowers, leaves and peel of Citrus aurantium L. var. amara from Tunisia. Boussaada, et al. 2006.
Volatile constituents and antioxidant activity of peel, flowers and leaf oils of Citrus aurantium L. growing in Greece. Sarrou, et al. 2013.
Screening for inhibitory activity of essential oils on selected bacteria, fungi and viruses. Chao, et al. 2000.
The in vitro antimicrobial activity and chemometric modelling of 59 commercial essential oils against pathogens of dermatological relevance. Orchard, et al. 2016.

Geranium Essential Oil

Rose Scented Geranium (Pelargonium graveolens) Flowers

Geraniums (Pelargonium) are a diverse group of plants that contains over 100 species. Geranium Essential Oil is most commonly extracted from the leaves of the Rose Scented Geranium (Pelargonium graveolens ). This species of geranium is native to the Southern Africa. Geranium Essential Oil is widely used for Naturopathic and Aromatherapy applications. It is occasionally included in topical Naturopathic treatments for acne.

Chemical Composition of Geranium Essential Oil Produced by Different Methods (Babu)
Chemical Composition of Geranium Essential Oil Produced by Different Methods (Babu)

Geranium Essential Oil is purported to have many properties that make it a valuable addition to Naturopathic skin care products. It has been claimed that Geranium Essential Oil has antibacterial, antifungal, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. However, very little clinical research has been conducted to investigate these claims. Laboratory testing indicates that Geranium Essential Oil is toxic to the acne-causing P. acnes bacterium. Geranium Essential Oil is a rich source of the molecule Citronellol, which is known to have potent antibacterial properties. Geranium Essential Oil also contains significant concentrations of Linalool, Geraniol and Isomenthone.

Geranium Essential Oil Images

References

Variation in essential oil composition of rose-scented geranium (Pelargonium sp.) distilled by different distillation techniques. Babu, et al. 2005.
Biomass yield, essential oil yield and essential oil composition of rose-scented geranium (Pelargonium species) as influenced by row spacings and intercropping with cornmint (Mentha arensis L.f. piperascens Malinv. ex Holmes). Rao. 2002.
Antibacterial and antifungal properties of essential oils. Kalemba, et al. 2003.
Topical herbal therapies an alternative and complementary choice to combat acne. Kapoor, et al. 2011.
Antimicrobial, Antioxidant, and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Essential Oils from Five Selected Herbs. Tsai, et al. 2011.

Oregano Essential Oil

Oregano (Origanum Vulgare)

Oregano Essential Oil is derived from the common Oregano herb (Origanum vulgare). Oregano is widely used for culinary purposes, and the essential oil is a popular component of many Naturopathic treatments for skin problems. Oregano Essential Oil is a common addition to topical Naturopathic acne treatments.

Oregano Flowers
Oregano Flowers

Oregano is a perennial herb that is related to other common herbs, including Mint and Thyme. Several research studies have shown that Oregano Essential Oil has strong antibacterial properties, particularly against gram-positive bacteria (eg. Propionibacterium acnes). In fact, Oregano may be one of the essential oils that is most toxic to the acne-causing P. acnes bacterium. In spite of its known antibacterial activity, there has been minimal clinical research into the efficacy of Oregano Essential Oil as a topical treatment for acne. However, many individuals have reported that Oregano Essential Oil helped to improve their acne symptoms.

Chemical Composition of Oregano Essential Oil (Nostro)
Chemical Composition of Oregano Essential Oil (Nostro)

Oregano Essential Oil contains many molecules which are known to have antimicrobial properties and other biological activity. Oregano Essential Oil contains significant concentrations of Thymol, Carvacrol, p-Cymene and y-Terpinene. Thymol and Carvacrol in particular are known to be toxic to many types of bacteria. Thyme Essential Oil also contains large concentrations of these compounds.

Oregano Essential Oil Images

References

Oregano @ Wikipedia
In vitro bioactivities of essential oils used for acne control. Lertsatitthanakorn, et al. 2006.
Composition of oregano essential oil (Origanum vulgare) as affected by drying method. Figiel, et al. 2010.
A study of the minimum inhibitory concentration and mode of action of oregano essential oil, thymol and carvacrol. Lambert, et al. 2001.
Susceptibility of methicillin-resistant staphylococci to oregano essential oil, carvacrol and thymol. Nostro, et al. 2004.
Chemical composition, antimicrobial and antioxidative activity of laurel, sage, rosemary, oregano and coriander essential oils. Baratta, et al. 1998.
Antibacterial and antifungal properties of essential oils. Kalemba, et al. 2003.

Myrrh Essential Oil

Harvested and Dried Myrrh Resin

Myrrh Essential Oil is extracted from the resin species of Myrrh trees (Commiphora Spp). Myrrh resin is used extensively in Traditional, Naturopathic and Ayurvedic Medicine, as well as Aromatherapy. In the regions where it grows, the humans have used Myrrh throughout recorded history. For example, Myrrh was one of the gifts brought by the Magi to celebrate the birth of Jesus.

Extraction of Myrrh Resin
Extraction of Myrrh Resin

As a treatment for acne, Myrrh is often combined with other ingredients in topical Naturopathic formulations. Many Naturopathic practitioners and their patients believe that Myrrh Essential Oil can help relieve symptoms of acne. Myrrh is purported to have antiseptic, astringent and anti-inflammatory properties. Some research studies have found that Myrrh Essential Oil is toxic to cancer cells that are grown in the laboratory. However, there is very little clinical research about the efficacy of Myrrh Essential Oil as a treatment for acne. Laboratory testing indicates that Myrrh Essential Oil is weakly toxic to gram-positive bacteria, a group which includes the acne-causing P. acnes bacterium.

Chemical Composition of Myrrh Essential Oil (Baser)
Chemical Composition of Myrrh Essential Oil (Baser)

Myrrh Essential Oil can be produced from the resin of several species of Myrrh, the most common of which is Commiphora myrrha (molmol). Myrrh plants are native to regions of East Africa and the Middle East. Myrrh is in the same family as Frankincense (Burseraceae). Myrrh Essential Oil contains significant concentrations of biologically-active molecules, including Furanodiene, Furanoeudesma-1,3-diene, Lindestrene and beta-Elemene.

Myrrh Essential Oil Images

References

Myrrh @ Wikipedia
Composition and potential anticancer activities of essential oils obtained from myrrh and frankincense. Chen, et al. 2013.
Antimicrobial activity of essential oils and other plant extracts. Hammer, et al. 1999.
Essential oils of some Boswellia spp., Myrrh and Opopanax. Baser, et al. 2003.
Components, therapeutic value and uses of myrrh. Ashry, et al. 2003.
The Encyclopedia of essential oils: the complete guide to the use of aromatic oils in aromatherapy, herbalism, health, and well being. Lawless. 2013
The in vitro Antimicrobial Activity and Chemometric Modelling of 59 Commercial Essential Oils against Pathogens of Dermatological Relevance. Orchard. 2017

Frankincense Essential Oil

Harvested Frankincense Resin

Frankincense Essential Oil is extracted from the resin of various species of Frankincense tree (Boswellia spp). There are many species of Frankincense tree, most of which are native to Eastern Africa and the Middle East. Ancient texts and oral histories indicate that Frankincense resin has been used by the people of the region for thousands of years. For example, Frankincense was one of three gifts that the Magi brought to celebrate the birth of Jesus.

Frankincense Tree (Boswellia)
Frankincense Tree (Boswellia)

Frankincense is widely used in Ayurvedic, Naturopathic and many forms of Traditional Medicine. Pure frankincense resin is consumed orally to treat a range of digestive tract problems. Frankincense is used extensively in Aromatherapy. Several research studies have reported that Frankincense is toxic to cancer cells, but these studies were all done in test tubes and it is unclear whether Frankincense would be a useful cancer treatment in humans or animals.

For Naturopathic acne treatments, Frankincense Essential Oil is generally used as a topical treatment. It can be added to topical formulations where it is purported to help ameliorate acne symptoms by reducing inflammation, suppressing bacterial growth and accelerating healing. Some Naturopathic practitioners may also prescribe Frankincense resin as an oral treatment for acne, although this is uncommon.

Composition of Frankincense Essential Oil from Multiple Sources (Van Vuuren)
Composition of Frankincense Essential Oil from Multiple Sources (Van Vuuren)

Despite the fact that many Naturopaths and their patients report improvements in their acne symptoms with the use of Frankincense Essential Oil, there is very little clinical research on this topic. There do not appear to be any controlled studies about the efficacy of Frankincense for the treatment of acne. Laboratory testing indicates that Frankincense is not strongly toxic to gram-positive bacteria, a group which includes the acne-causing P. acnes bacterium.

Because Frankincense Essential Oil can be produced from the resin of several species of Frankincense (Boswellia) tree, there is considerable variation in the composition of Frankincense Essential Oil. Frankincense is most commonly obtained from the resin of the following Frankincense species: Boswellia carteriiBoswellia frereana, Boswellia papyrifera, Boswellia sacra and Boswellia serrata. Frankincense Essential Oil contains significant concentrations of many biologically-active molecules, including alpha-Pinene, Limonene, p-Cymene and B-Caryophyllene.

Wounding Frankincense Tree Bark to Collect Resin
Wounding Frankincense Tree Bark to Collect Resin

Populations of native Frankincense trees are declining in many regions, largely due to unsustainable harvesting of Frankincense resin. A substantial proportion of Frankincense trees grow in countries that have high levels of poverty and weak environmental protections. Resin extraction can slow the growth of Frankincense trees, reduce their seed production or even kill them outright. Consumers can help protect Frankincense populations by purchasing resin and oils that are sustainably harvested.

Frankincense Essential Oil Images

References

Frankincense @ Wikipedia
Composition and potential anticancer activities of essential oils obtained from myrrh and frankincense. Chen, et al. 2013.
Volatile composition and antimicrobial activity of twenty commercial frankincense essential oil samples. Van Vuuren, et al. 2010.
Chemistry and immunomodulatory activity of frankincense oil. Mikhaeil, et al. 2003.
Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of some oleogum resin essential oils from Boswellia spp.(Burseraceae). Camarda, et al. 2007.
The Encyclopedia of essential oils: the complete guide to the use of aromatic oils in aromatherapy, herbalism, health, and well being. Lawless. 2013.

Cypress Essential Oil

Cypress (Cupressus Sempervirens) Needles 2

Cypress Essential Oil is extracted from the needles and branches of the Cypress tree, usually the Mediterranean cypress (Cupressus sempervirens). It is widely used in the traditional medicine of the people who live in regions where Cypress trees are found. Cypress Essential Oil is occasionally used for the Naturopathic treatment of acne. As an acne treatment, Cypress Essential Oil is generally added to topically-applied formulations.

Cypress (Cupressus sempervirens) Cone
Cypress (Cupressus sempervirens) Cone

There is little clinical research about Cypress Essential Oil  as a treatment for acne. However, many Naturopathic practitioners and their patients report that Cypress Essential Oil helped control their acne symptoms. Cypress Essential Oil is purported to have antimicrobial properties, to improve circulation, to improve digestion and to reduce inflammation. Cypress Essential Oil is included in many Naturopathic skin care products that are intended to brighten the skin and improve overall complexion.

Chemical Composition of Cypress Essential Oil (Selim)
Chemical Composition of Cypress Essential Oil (Selim)

Laboratory testing indicates that Cypress Essential Oil has some antibacterial properties, but less than many other essential oils. Cypress Essential Oil does not appear to be particularly toxic to gram-positive bacteria, a group which includes the acne-causing P. acnes bacterium. Cypress Essential Oil contains significant concentrations of alpha-Pinene, carene, alpha-terpinolene and limonene.

Cypress Essential Oil Images

References

Cypress (Cupressus sempervirens) @ Wikipedia
Chemical composition of cypress essential oils: volatile constituents of leaf oils from seven cultivated Cupressus species. Pierre-Leandri, et al. 2003.
Chemical composition of Algerian cypress essential oil. Chanegriha, et al. 1993.
GC and GC/MS leaf oil analysis of four Algerian cypress species. Chanegriha, et al. 1997.
Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oils of Cupressus arizonica Greene. Chéraif, et al. 2007.
Chemical composition, antimicrobial and antibiofilm activity of the essential oil and methanol extract of the Mediterranean cypress (Cupressus sempervirens L.). Selim, et al. 2014.
Biological effects of essential oils – a review. Bakkali, et al. 2008.
Antibacterial and antifungal effects of essential oils from coniferous trees. Hong, et al. 2004.
The Encyclopedia of essential oils: the complete guide to the use of aromatic oils in aromatherapy, herbalism, health, and well being. Lawless. 2013.