Echinacea

Purple Coneflowers (Echinacea purpurea)

Echinacea supplements are prepared from several species of Coneflower (Echinacea spp). The most common Echinacea supplements are extracts from the roots of the Purple Coneflower (Echinacea purpurea). Echinacea is native to the Eastern North America, and this plant was an important part of the traditional medicines of many Native American groups who lived in the region. Echinacea extracts are purported to have many health benefits and are widely used in Naturopathic Medicine to boost the immune system and to treat respiratory infections, such as the common cold. Echinacea extracts are occasionally used in the Naturopathic treatment of acne.

Echinacea Capsules
Echinacea Capsules

Despite numerous claims that Echinacea helps support the immune system, there is little scientific evidence that commercially-available Echinacea extracts have any health benefits. One reason for this might be because the composition of Echinacea extracts varies significantly between providers. It is also unclear whether the active ingredients that are present in Echinacea formulations prepared from fresh Echinacea roots are also present in the commercial extracts. Overall, there is no compelling evidence to suggest that commercial Echinacea extracts are helpful for the treatment of infections, including acne.

Antimocrobial Activity of Echinacea Oregon Grape and Other Plant Extracts (Wendakoon)
Antimocrobial Activity of Echinacea Oregon Grape and Other Plant Extracts (Wendakoon)

Echinacea extracts have been claimed to have robust antibacterial properties which may help reduce the growth of acne-causing bacteria, such as Propionibacterium acnesHowever, laboratory testing indicates that commercial Echinacea extracts tend to be weakly toxic to gram-positive bacteria, a group which includes P. acnes. Overall, it seems unlikely that commercial Echinacea extracts will be helpful acne treatments. While topical or oral treatments that use fresh Echinacea extract may be helpful for the treatment of acne, more research is needed on that subject.

Echinacea Images

References

Echinacea @ Wikipedia
The potential use of Echinacea in acne: control of Propionibacterium acnes growth and inflammation. Sharma, et al. 2011.
Applications of the phytomedicine Echinacea purpurea (Purple Coneflower) in infectious diseases. Hudson. 2011.
A review of phytotherapy of acne vulgaris: perspective of new pharmacological treatments. Azimi, et al. 2012.
Immunotropic activity of Echinacea. Part II. Experimental and clinical data. Balan, et al. 2012.
Medicinal plants for the treatment of acne vulgaris: a review of recent evidences. Nasri, et al. 2015.
Echinacea: an effective alternative to antibiotics. Tierra. 2008.
An Evaluation of Echinacea angustifolia in Experimental Rhinovirus Infections. Turner, et al. 2005.
Evaluation of Selected Medicinal Plants Extracted in Different Ethanol Concentrations for Antibacterial Activity against Human Pathogens. Wendakoon, et al. 2012.

Red Clover

Red Clover and Acne

Red Clover (Trifolium pratense) is a flowering plant that was originally native to Europe, Western Asia and Northwest Africa but is now naturalized worldwide. Red Clover is a common agricultural cover crop because it fixes nitrogen in the soil and is a rich source of pollen and nectar for bees. Red Clover is widely used in Naturopathic Medicine to treat a variety of ailments. In Naturopathic Medicine, dried Red Clover is occasionally used as an oral herbal supplement or mixed with topical formulations for the treatment of acne.

Field of Red Clover
Field of Red Clover

Red Clover is purported to have anti-inflammatory, expectorant and sedative properties. Red Clover is commonly used as a Naturopathic treatment for menopausal hot-flashes. Red Clover contains several isoflavone compounds which are similar in structure estrogen (a female sex hormone). These Estrogen-like compounds are called Phyto-Estrogens. Consumption of large amounts of Red Clover extract can trigger estrogen-dependent effects in the body.

There are some people who have reported that both oral and topical Red Clover formulations were helpful treatments for their acne. The effect of Red Clover on acne may be related to the presence of Phyto-Estrogens. Estrogens can inhibit the activity of Androgens (male sex hormones). Elevated levels of Androgens are known to trigger acne symptoms in some individuals. Unfortunately there are no rigorous scientific studies on the effectiveness of Red Clover for the treatment of acne. Nonetheless, Red Clover is one of the few herbal supplements that may actually be useful as an acne treatment, and this application deserves further investigation.

 

Red Clover Images

References

Red Clover @ Wikipedia
Phytoestrogens derived from red clover: an alternative to estrogen replacement therapy? Beck, et al. 2005.
Therapeutic agents and herbs in topical application for acne treatment. Kanlayavattanakul, et al. 2011.
Estrogenic activity of two standardized red clover extracts (Menoflavon®) intended for large scale use in hormone replacement therapy. Dornstauder, et al. 2001.
Clinical studies of red clover (Trifolium pratense) dietary supplements in menopause: a literature review. Booth, et al. 2006.
Isoflavones, phytohormones and phytosterols. Dweck. 2006.
Determination of isoflavones in red clover and related species by high-performance liquid chromatography combined with ultraviolet and mass spectrometric detection. Wu, et al. 2003.
Inhibition of angiogenesis and inflammation by an extract of red clover (Trifolium pratense L.). Krenn, et al. 2009.

Oregon Grape

Oregon Grape and Acne

Oregon Grape (Mahonia aquifolium) is an evergreen shrub that is native to western North America. The Oregon Grape is the official plant of the state of Oregon (USA). The bush has spiny leaves and blooms of yellow flowers that develop into dark blue berries. The berries are edible but they are quite tart. Oregon Grape was an important element of the traditional medicine of the Native Americans who inhabited the region. Oregon Grape is occasionally used as a treatment for acne.

Oregon Grape Bush
Oregon Grape Bush

Extracts from the roots of Oregon Grape are available commercially and are commonly used in Naturopathic Medicine.  Oregon Grape root extract has been reported to have anti-inflammatory and antibacterial properties. Some Naturopaths prescribe Oregon Grape root extract as an oral supplement to treat inflammatory skin conditions, such as psoriasis and acne. Some people have reported that oral supplements of Oregon Grape root extract helped improve their acne symptoms. However, no rigorous clinical studies have been conducted to determine if Oregon Grape extracts are actually an effective treatment for acne.

Oregon Grape root extract contains signficant concentrations of a biologically-active molecule called Berberine. Berberine is an alkaloid that has been shown to have anti-bacterial properties, and it may be responsible for many of the other medicinal properties of Oregon Grape root extract. Berberine is found in many other plants (eg. Goldenseal), and many cultures utilize those plants for medicinal purposes.

Oregon Grape Images

References

Oregon Grape @ Wikipedia
Berberine @ Wikipedia
From medical herbalism to phytotherapy in dermatology: back to the future. Dattner. 2003.
Herbal medicine for acne vulgaris. Yarnell, et al. 2006.
Different approaches of alternative medicines in acne vulgaris treatment. Ghosh, et al. 2011.
A review on herbal drugs acting against Acne Vulgaris. Patel, et al. 2015.
Botanicals in dermatology. Reuter, et al. 2010.
Topical herbal therapies an alternative and complementary choice to combat acne. Kapoor, et al. 2011.
Method validation for determination of alkaloid content in goldenseal root powder. Weber, et al. 2003.

Khadir

Acacia Catechu Leaves and Flower

Khadir is an herbal supplement made from the Kher plant (Senegalia catechu or Acacia catechu). The Kher plant may go by other names, such as black catechu, black cutch, cachou, catechu, cutchtree and khair. The plant is a thorny, deciduous tree that is native to Asia and parts of India near the Indian Ocean. In Ayurvedic medicine Khadir is used for treatments ranging from sore throats to diarrhea to skin care. Khadir is commonly used in Ayurvedic medicine as both a topical and oral treatment for acne.

Harvested Acacia Kher Tree Bark Fiber for Khadir Production
Harvested Acacia Kher Tree Bark Fiber for Khadir Production

Khadir is thought to act as a an astringent,  anti-inflammatory and antibacterial agent. The addition of Khadir to Naturopathic face washes is purported to help minimize the redness and swelling associated with acne lesions. However, these claims have not been tested in clinical studies and acne sufferers should not anticipate oral or topical Khadir treatments to dramatically improve their acne symptoms.

Khadir extracts contain several compounds which are believed to have biological activity. The Acacia catechu is so named because the plant contains significant concentrations of catechins, catechols and catecholamines. The utility of these compounds for the treatment of acne is not well understood and requires additional research.

Khadir Images

References

Khadir @ Wikipedia
Therapeutic plants of Ayurveda: a review of selected clinical and other studies for 166 species. Khan, et al. 2001.
Determination of the predominant catechins in Acacia catechu by liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization− mass spectrometry. Shen, et al. 2006.
In Vitro antimicrobial activity of Acacia catechu and its phytochemical analysis. Negi, et al. 2010.
A medicinal extract of Scutellaria baicalensis and Acacia catechu acts as a dual inhibitor of cyclooxygenase and 5-lipoxygenase to reduce inflammation. Burnett, et al. 2007.
Analgesic effects of a standardized bioflavonoid composition from Scutellaria baicalensis and Acacia catechu. Yiman, et al. 2012.

Goldenseal

Goldenseal  (Hydrastis canadensis) is an herb in the Ranunculaceae family that is native to Eastern North America. According to historical documents, Native Americans relied on the medicinal qualities of Goldenseal for the treatment of a variety of ailments. These ailments include skin infections, digestion problems and cancer. Goldenseal is now occasionally used by modern Naturopathic practitioners for the treatment of acne.

Goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis) Plant
Goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis) Plant

Goldenseal extracts are purported to have  anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal and astringent properties.  For the treatment of acne, Goldenseal extracts are both consumed orally or added to topical anti-acne formulations. Many people have claimed that Naturopathic treatments involving Goldenseal helped to improve their acne symptoms. However, there do not appear to have been any rigorous clinical studies to evaluate how effective Goldenseal extract is for the treatment of acne. In fact, there does not appear to be strong evidence that Goldenseal is an effective treatment for many of the medical conditions for which it is commonly prescribed. The lack of scientific evidence does not prove or disprove the medical utility of Goldenseal, but more research is needed to evaluate many of the claimed benefits of Goldenseal.

Goldenseal does contain significant quantities of several alkaloids which are known to be biologically active, such as berberastine, berberine, canadine and hydrastine. Berberine has been shown to have antibacterial properties, possibly by disrupting their efflux pump system. Berberine has also been reported to be an anti-inflammatory agent when consumed orally, but this claim has not been fully proven.

Goldenseal Images

References

Goldenseal @ Wikipedia
Topical herbal therapies an alternative and complementary choice to combat acne. Kapoor, et al. 2011.
Herbal medicine for acne vulgaris. Yarnell, et al. 2006.
A review on herbal drugs acting against Acne Vulgaris. Patel, et al. 2015.
Human cytochrome p450 inhibition and metabolic-intermediate complex formation by goldenseal extract and its methylenedioxyphenyl components. Chatterjee, et al. 2003.
Goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis L.) extracts synergistically enhance the antibacterial activity of berberine via efflux pump inhibition. Ettefagh, et al. 2011.
Determination of Hydrastine and Berberine in Goldenseal Raw Materials, Extracts, and Dietary Supplements by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography with UV: Collaborative Study. Brown, et al. 2008.

Evening Primrose Oil

Evening Primrose

Evening Primrose Oil is extracted from the seeds of several flowering plants in the genus Oenothera, which are found in North America. Evening Primrose Oil is a popular Naturopathic treatment for many types of skin disease, including psoriasis, exzema and acne. Evening Primrose Oil is used in both topical and oral formulations.

Evening Primrose Seed Pods
Evening Primrose Seed Pods

Evening Primrose Oil is rich source of Gamma-Linolenic Acid (GLA). GLA is a fatty acid that is purported to have anti-inflammatory and other health benefits when ingested. Prior to European settlement, some Native Americans cultivated the Evening Primrose and it was an important component of their traditional medicine.

Many people have reported that both oral and topical Evening Primrose Oil helped to improve their acne symptoms. There have also been some studies that suggest Evening Primrose Oil may help improve acne symptoms. However, the evidence provided by these studies tends to be weak and their findings should not be considered definitive. Evening Primrose Oil, and GLA in particular, are intriguing Naturopathic acne treatment options and warrant additional research.

 

Evening Primrose Oil Images

References

Evening Primrose @ Wikipedia
Evening primrose oil is effective in atopic dermatitis: a randomized placebo-controlled trial. Senapati, et al. 2008.
Essential fatty acid metabolism and its modification in atopic eczema. Horrobin. 2000.
A review of the clinical efficacy of evening primrose. Stonemetz. 2008.
Herbal anti-inflammatory agents for skin disease. Graf. 2000.
Essential‐fatty‐acid metabolites in plasma phospholipids in patients with ichthyosis vulgaris, acne vulgaris and psoriasis. Grattan, et al. 1990.
Topical herbal therapies an alternative and complementary choice to combat acne. Kapoor, et al. 2011.

Elderberry

Black Elderberry Berries

Elderberry Supplements are produced from berries of several species of Elderberry tree (Sambucus spp.), most commonly Black Elderberry (Sambucus nigra). The Elderberry plant has been used for centuries by traditional healers to treat respiratory infections and other diseases. Elderberry is occasionally used in the Naturopathic treatment of acne.

Black Elderberry Flower
Black Elderberry Flower

Elderberry extracts have been reported to have antibacterial, antiviral and antioxidant properties. There have been some research reports that Elderberry extracts can decrease symptoms of respiratory infections, but the overall evidence is weak. Elderberry extracts have also been reported to have moderate antibacterial activity towards gram positive bacteria, a group which includes the acne-causing P. acnes bacterium.

In regards to acne, Elderberry extracts are often used for their perceived immune boost. The immune benefit may then lead to an improvement in acne symptoms. However, there does not appear to be any reliable evidence that indicates Elderberry extracts are an effective acne treatment when used orally or topically.

Elderberry Images

References

Elderberry @ Wikipedia
European elderberry (Sambucus nigra L.) rich in sugars, organic acids, anthocyanins and selected polyphenols. Veberic, et al. 2009.
Inhibitory activity of a standardized elderberry liquid extract against clinically-relevant human respiratory bacterial pathogens and influenza A and B viruses. Krawitz, et al. 2011.
Advanced research on the antioxidant and health benefit of elderberry (Sambucus nigra) in food–a review. Sidor, et al. 2015.
The antimicrobial activity of elderberry (Sambucus nigra L) extract against gram positive bacteria, gam negative bacteria and yeast. Mohammadsadeghi, et al. 2013.
Antibacterial activity of elder (Sambucus nigra L.) flower or berry against hospital pathogens. Hearst, et al. 2010.

Burdock

Burdock Flowers 2

Burdock Supplements are extracted from the roots and seeds of the Burdock plant (Arctium spp). Most commercial Burdock supplements are prepared from the roots or seeds of the Greater Burdock (Arctium lappa), which is native to Eurasia but naturalized in many regions around the world. Burdock root is an important part of the traditional medicine of many cultures in its native range. Burdock is used in Naturopathic medicine to treat many different conditions, including acne.

Burdock Roots
Burdock Roots

For the Naturopathic treatment of acne, Burdock seed extracts are often incorporated into topical preparations. Burdock root supplements or teas may be used to ‘cleanse’ the blood in order to help heal the skin. Although there are some reports that Burdock supplements helped reduce acne symptoms, there is no robust evidence to support these claims. Burdock supplements are unlikely to significantly improve acne symptoms for most people.

Despite the lack of scientific evidence of usefulness as an acne treatment, Burdock root extract is rich in important fatty acids. Taking modest amounts of Burdock supplements may have modest health benefits for some individuals, but it is difficult to know without further scientific research. Burdock extracts can also be toxic if consumed in excessive quantities.

Burdock Images

Burdock Root References

Burdock @ Wikipedia
Observational study of Arctium lappa in the treatment of acne vulgaris. Miglani, et al. 2014.
Anticholinergic poisonings associated with commercial burdock root tea. Rhoads, et al. 1984.
The effect of the ingestion of burdock root on normal and diabetic individuals a preliminary report. Silver, et al. 1931.
Antioxidant activity of burdock (Arctium lappa Linne): its scavenging effect on free-radical and active oxygen. Duh. 1998.
Preparation of inulin and phenols-rich dietary fibre powder from burdock root. Lou, et al. 2009.