Doxycycline

Doxycycline (Vibramycin) Capsules

Doxycycline (Vibramycin) is an antibiotic in the Tetracycline family. Doxycycline is one of the most frequently used oral antibiotics for acne treatment. It is also used to treat certain types of skin, respiratory and sexually-transmitted infections that are caused by bacteria.

Doxycycline can be an effective treatment for many people with moderate to severe acne. A substantial amount of clinical research and positive patient reports support the use of Doxycycline for the treatment of acne.

However, acne-causing P. acnes bacteria that are resistant to Doxycycline (and other Tetracycline antibiotics) are becoming increasingly common. Because of this antibiotic resistance, Doxycycline is ineffective for many patients.

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Dapsone

Dapsone (Aczone) Gel

Dapsone is an antibiotic in the Sulfonamide family. It is used to treat a range of infections, including Leprosy, respiratory and skin infections.

Dapsone was once a popular choice for treating moderate to severe acne in the mid 20th century, but its use declined when oral Isotretinoin (Accutane) was introduced. However, Dapsone is now regaining popularity as an acne treatment.

Antibiotic susceptibility testing indicates that the acne-causing P. acnes bacterium tends to be moderately susceptible to Dapsone. A wealth of clinical research demonstrates that oral Dapsone can be an effective treatment for individuals with inflammatory acne. Patients have also reported positive results from the use of topical Dapsone gel.

Dapsone is widely available in oral and topical formulations. Topical Dapsone is a relatively new formulation that is specifically marketed as an acne treatment. Cotrimoxazole (also in the Sulfonamide antibiotic family) is more commonly used oral antibiotic than Dapsone, but it is unclear which of these medications is a more effective acne treatment.

People with a history of allergic responses to Sulfonamide (Sulfa) drugs have an elevated risk of adverse events when using Dapsone.

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Cotrimoxazole

Co-Trimoxazole (Septra) Tablets

Cotrimoxazole is a combination of two antibiotics – Trimethoprim and Sulfamethoxazole. Cotrimoxazole is used to treat many kinds of bacterial infections, such as urinary tract, respiratory and skin infections.

Sulfamethoxazole is a member of the Sulfonamide family. Sulfamethoxazole and Trimethoprim work together to prevent bacteria from synthesizing folic acid, an essential B vitamin.

Cotrimoxazole is occasionally used to treat acne. Clinical research and patient reports suggest that cotrimoxazole can be a very effective treatment for some people with moderate to severe inflammatory acne (Acne Types:2-4). Clotrimoxazole is often effective for individuals who have not benefited from common anti-acne antibiotics (eg. Minocycline, Doxycycline, Clindamycin). Antibiotic susceptibility testing indicates that the acne-causing P. acnes bacteria tends to be moderately susceptible to Sulfamethoxazole and Trimethoprim, individually. The combination (Cotrimoxazole) is substantially more toxic to P. acnes bacteria.

There is a greater risk of significant side effects and allergic reactions when using Cotrimoxazole than many of the other oral antibiotics used to treat acne. In particular, Cotrimoxazole has been associated with an auto-immune reaction called Stevens–Johnson syndrome, which can be life-threatening. Although the risk is small, this may explain why Cotrimoxazole is not more widely used for the treatment of acne. Individuals with a history of allergic reactions to Sulfonamide antibiotics should avoid using Cotrimoxazole.

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Clindamycin

Topical Clindamycin Solution (Cleocin T)

Clindamycin is an antibiotic in the Lincosamide Family. Clindamycin is closely related to antibiotics in the Macrolide family (eg. Erythromycin, Azithromycin). It is used to treat a variety of bacterial infections.

Clindamycin is commonly used to treat acne. Topical Clindamycin is one of the most common antibiotic treatments for acne. Oral Clindamycin is also occasionally used as to treat acne. Many patients have reported that Clindamycin helped to improve their acne symptoms. Their is also a wealth of clinical research that demonstrates that Clindamycin can be an effective acne treatment.

Laboratory antibiotic susceptibility testing indicates that the acne-causing P. acnes bacterium is usually sensitive to Clindamycin. However, Clindamycin-resistant P. acnes bacteria are becoming common in many regions of the world. Individuals with acne symptoms that are caused by Clindamycin-resistant bacteria are not likely to benefit from this medication. Bacteria that are resistant to Clindamycin are often also resistant to Macrolide antibiotics, such as Erythromycin.

Topical Clindamycin is often combined with complementary treatments, such as oral antibiotics, retinoids or light-based treatments.

 

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Ciprofloxacin

Ciprofloxacin Tablets

Ciprofloxacin is an antibiotic in the Quinolone Family. Ciprofloxacin is a commonly used antibiotic that is used to treat a variety of infections, including bone, joint, respiratory, skin, and urinary tract infections.

Ciprofloxacin is rarely used to treat acne. There is limited clinical evidence regarding the efficacy of Ciprofloxacin as a treatment for acne, although some individuals have reported that this medication helped improve their acne symptoms. Antibiotic susceptibility testing indicates that the acne-causing P. acnes bacterium is generally sensitive to Quinolone family antibiotics, including Ciprofloxacin.

When used to treat acne, Ciprofloxacin is often combined with a complementary antibiotic. Ciprofloxacin is available as an oral or topical medication, although it is usually administered orally.

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Cephalexin

Cephalexin (Keflex) Capsules

Cephalexin is an antibiotic in the Cephalosporin Family. Cephalexin is a very common antibiotic that is used to treat a variety of bacterial infections.

Cephalexin is occasionally used to treat acne. There is limited clinical research into the efficacy of Cephalexin as an acne treatment. However, come patients have reported that Cephalexin improved their acne symptoms. Antibiotic susceptibility testing indicates that the acne-causing P. acnes bacterium is generally sensitive to Cephalosporin fmaily antibiotics, including Cephalexin.

The Cephalosporin and Penicillin families are structurally related. Cephlalexin is not recommended for individuals with severe penicillin allergies.

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Azithromycin

Azithromycin 100mg Capsules

Azithromycin is an antibiotic in the Macrolide Family. Azithromycin is a very common antibiotic that is used to treat many different kinds of infections.

Azithromycin is rarely used to treat acne. However, there are some reports that Azithromycin helped improve acne symptoms.  Antibiotic susceptibility testing indicates that the acne-causing P. acnes bacterium tends to be susceptible to antibiotics in the Macrolide family, including Azithromycin. However, Macrolide-resistant P. acnes bacteria are becoming common in many regions of the world.

Azithromycin is primarily used as an oral antibiotic, but topical Azithromycin is available in some regions. Individuals with allergies to Clindamycin, Erythromycin or Pristinamycin should avoid taking Azithromycin due to increased risk of side effects.

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Ampicillin

Ampicillin (Ampisyn) 250mg Capsules

Ampicillin is an antibiotic in the Penicillin Family. Ampicillin is a very common antibiotic that is used to treat many different kinds of infection.

Ampicillin is rarely used to treat acne. There is limited evidence about the efficacy of Ampicillin for treating acne symptoms. Antibiotic susceptibility testing indicates that the acne-causing P. acnes bacterium tends to be highly sensitive to antibiotics in the Penicillin family, including Ampicillin.

Ampicillin should not be used by people that are allergic to Penicillin family antibiotics (eg. Penicillin V, Amoxicillin) due to an increased risk of side effects.

Amoxicillin

Amoxicillin Capsules

Amoxicillin an antibiotic in the Penicillin family. Amoxicillin is a very common antibiotic that is used to treat many different kinds of infection.

Amoxicillin is occasionally used to treat acne. Many acne patients have reported that Amoxicillin helped improve their acne symptoms. Antibiotic susceptibility testing indicates that the acne-causing P. acnes bacterium tends to be highly sensitive to antibiotics in the Penicillin family, including Amoxicillin.

Amoxicillin should not be used by people that are allergic to Penicillin family antibiotics (eg. Penicillin G, Ampicillin) due to an increased risk of side effects.

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